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Environmentally sustainable & economically viable grazing systems for restoration & maintenance of heather moorland: E&W - BD1228

Description
The overall objective of this proposal is to establish environmentally and economically sustainable grazing regimes that enable the restoration and maintenance of heather moorland habitats such as upland heaths and mires.
Initially a scoping study (objective 1), which will include consultation exercises, will be undertaken to assess the potential of current grazing regimes and intervention techniques which seek to maintain and restore heather. The factors which contribute/limit success will be identified and subsequently evaluated (objective 2). This information will be used to develop single/mixed grazing regimes through modelling exercises which in conjunction with restoration techniques can be used to restore and maintain heather moorland in different geographical locations (objective 3). These techniques will be developed on the basis of their suitability for restoring and maintaining heather and other upland vegetation, livestock productivity, economic performance, and enhancement of upland birds and invertebrates of conservation importance. These exercises will meet the Research needs 1 and 2 of the tender document (Project CTE0102).
The impact of the selected grazing regimes and intervention techniques will be assessed and critically evaluated through studies at the whole-system and plot scale (objective 4). These will measure the impact on biodiversity, together with their practical and economic viability, to satisfy Research Needs 3, 4 and 5 of the tender document. The results, in conjunction with data from the scoping study and evaluation exercise, will be used to develop practical guidelines (objective 5) for both farmer/landowners and advisers on environmentally sustainable grazing regimes. If changes to agri-environment prescriptions are necessary, recommendations will be made to DEFRA. These recommendations and technical guidelines meet Research Need 6 of the tender document.
The work described in this proposal will provide:
· a sound scientific basis for DEFRA and NAWAD to develop appropriate policies and schemes to deliver UK Biodiversity Action Plan (BAP) targets for the enhancement and maintenance of upland habitats;
· support and provide information to assist policy-makers and project officers in the establishment and implementation of agri-environment scheme prescriptions for upland areas;
· identify grazing regimes that assist DEFRA and NAWAD in implementing the Hill Farm Allowance Scheme and Tir Mynydd and to meet requirements under the England and Wales Rural Development Plans and the EC Rural Development Regulation.
Objective
Overall aim: to establish environmentally sustainable grazing regimes that enable the restoration and maintenance of heather moorland habitats such as upland heaths and mires.
Specific objectives are to:
1. Complete a scoping study to identify and define the range of habitats, grazing practices and intervention techniques to be considered in this study.
2. Evaluate existing grazing operations and intervention techniques for maintaining and restoring heather moorland habitats, in order to determine the factors influencing their success, their impact upon aspects of biodiversity and their economic viability.
3. Develop, through modelling, single and mixed grazing practices and intervention techniques appropriate for restoring and maintaining heather moorland in areas of England and Wales, and assess the impacts of resulting habitat changes on invertebrate communities and bird populations.
4. Assess, through system scale and plot scale studies, the impact of selected grazing regimes and intervention techniques on vegetation, livestock and economic viability, upland birds and invertebrate species/groups of conservation importance.
5. Develop practical guidelines for both farmers/landowners and advisers on environmentally sustainable grazing regimes, report to DEFRA on the success of the project and, where necessary, identify changes to scheme prescriptions and make recommendations.
Project Documents
• Final Report : 3 Vegetation Overview   (87k)
• Final Report : Environmentally sustainable & economically viable grazing systems for restoration & maintenance of heather moorland: E&W   (613k)
• Final Report : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 11 - Dartmoor   (67k)
• Final Report - Annex : 1 Environmentally and Economically Sustainable Grazing on Heather Moorland – an overview   (64k)
• Final Report - Annex : 2 Grazing Regimes Overview   (122k)
• Final Report - Annex : 2.1 Sheep Grazing   (185k)
• Final Report - Annex : 2.2 Cattle Grazing   (92k)
• Final Report - Annex : 2.3 Mixed grazing   (83k)
• Final Report - Annex : 3.1 Increasing Dwarf Shrub Cover   (93k)
• Final Report - Annex : 3.2 Controlling Purple Moor-grass (Molinia)   (87k)
• Final Report - Annex : 3.3 Diversifying Mat-grass (Nardus) Moorland   (77k)
• Final Report - Annex : 4 Birds overview   (88k)
• Final Report - Annex : 4.1 Red Grouse   (62k)
• Final Report - Annex : 4.2 Waders   (72k)
• Final Report - Annex : 4.3 Passerines   (74k)
• Final Report - Annex : 5 Invertebrate Biodiversity   (63k)
• Final Report - Annex : Bibliography   (202k)
• Final Report - Annex : Bio-Economic Modelling Of Moorland Grazing Systems –The Dependency Upon Agricultural And Agri-Environmental Support Payments   (167k)
• Final Report - Annex : Bird Modelling: Bird Habitat Associations   (368k)
• Final Report - Annex : Bird Modelling: Predictive Models   (274k)
• Final Report - Annex : Bird Modelling: Presence-Absence Models of Scarcer Species   (79k)
• Final Report - Annex : Determining Diet Composition on Complex Swards using N-Alkalines and Long Chain Fatty Alcohols   (197k)
• Final Report - Annex : Development of Practices Via Modelling   (609k)
• Final Report - Annex : EVALUATION CASE STUDIES   (29k)
• Final Report - Annex : Evaluation Case Studies   (22k)
• Final Report - Annex : Experiments To Accelerate Heather Recolonisation   (400k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Behaviour   (126k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Of Heather Moorland Vegetation   (132k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study: Site 1 - Ashtrees Dipper, ADAS Redesdale, Northumberland   (68k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study: Site 2 - Northumberland   (67k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study: Site 4 - Lake District   (68k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study: Site 5 - Forest of Bowland   (74k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study: Site 6 - North York Moors   (66k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 10 - Exmoor   (76k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 3 - North Pennines   (74k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 7 – Peak District   (69k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 8 - Powys   (75k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Regime Evaluation Case Study:Site 9 - Ffridd, ADAS Pwllpeiran,Dyfed   (69k)
• Final Report - Annex : Grazing Studies   (1359k)
• Final Report - Annex : Identification of Upland Habitats and Criteria by which to Judge Successful Restoration   (188k)
• Final Report - Annex : Invertebrate Modelling   (163k)
• Final Report - Annex : Literature Review of Bio-Economic Modelling   (120k)
• Final Report - Annex : Literature Review Of Bio-Economic Modelling Etc   (95k)
• Final Report - Annex : Policy Review   (466k)
• Final Report - Annex : Pwllpeiran System Study   (219k)
• Final Report - Annex : Redesdale System Study   (275k)
• Final Report - Annex : System Studies: Birds   (149k)
• Final Report - Annex : System Studies: Invertebrates   (134k)
• Final Report - Annex : The Contribution of Invertebrate Taxa to Moorland Bird Diets and the Potential Implications of Land Use Management   (572k)
Time-Scale and Cost
From: 2002

To: 2007

Cost: £1,125,608
Contractor / Funded Organisations
Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, University - Newcastle, Royal Society for Protection of Birds, ADAS UK Ltd., University - Scottish Agricultural College, Institute of Grassland and Environment Research (IGER)
Keywords
Agricultural Land              
Biodiversity              
Environmental Protection              
Land              
Peer Review              
Uplands              
Fields of Study
Environmental Stewardship